Monday - Friday 8: Five nations of Indians occupied the Shamokin Indian Village at the confluence of the two branches of the Susquehanna River in what would later become Sunbury. The town of Shamokin was laid out on March 1,
From Maryport it continues a further twelve miles to Wigton, but narrows to about two miles in width. In addition a large area of coal has been worked under the sea bed, mostly in the Whitehaven area, with the coal being mined up to four miles out from the coast. There are seven principal coal seams in the Whitehaven area: Upper Metal Band — 3ft 6ins wide, at 48 fathoms deep at Wellington Pit Preston Isle Yard Burnt — 2ft 6ins wide, at 53 fathoms deep Bannock — 6ft wide, at 74 fathoms deep Main Prior — 9ft wide, at 96 fathoms deep Little Main — 2ft wide, at fathoms deep Six Quarters — 6ft wide, at fathoms deep Four Feet — 2ft 3ins wide, at fathoms deep The dip of all the above seams is seaward, with a fall of approximately 1 in 2.
The Main seam crops out near the line of the low road to St. Bees, and has been worked from a very early period along the outcrop as far as Partis Pit near Stanley Road, Mirehouse. The Bannock seam crops out at a correspondingly higher level. At first the coal was worked from the outcrops where the seam was exposed.
One of the earliest records of coal mining in West Cumberland dates to when Sir Thomas Chaloner, lord of the manor of St Bees,in granting certain leases within the manor, reserved for himself the right to dig for coals while at the same time granting his lessees liberty to take coals A history of the coal industry his pits for their own use, on the condition that they paid and laboured from time to time therein, according to the custom of the manor.
The Lowther Family came on the scene in the s, in particular Sir John who may truly be described as the founder of the Whitehaven collieries. These were worked by the Lowthers — ably assisted by their agents, the Speddings — till Augustwhen the working pits and a large tract of submarine coal were leased to the Whitehaven Colliery Company.
The mines stayed in private hands till the industry was nationalised in A major development in coal mining took place in West Cumberland in when, to win new tracts of coal, pits were sunk and drifts cut horizontally from the lower grounds to drain the workings.
This arrangement was called the pit and adit system. The coal was originally raised by jackrolls and later by horse gins.
This level drained an area sufficient to serve the needs of the coal trade until nearly the close of the 17th century.
Later, on the 10th Novemberin order to win coal from deeper levels, Lowther installed the first steam pumping engine in a Cumberland mine at Stone Pit, Howgill near Whitehaven.
Another great feat took place in when the Lowthers started sinking Saltom Pit right on the sea shore, just clear of the cliffs. The sinking of this new mine so close to the sea, to work the coal under the sea bed, was quoted as being the most remarkable colliery enterprise of its day.
When the pit had been sunk feet a strong blower of gas was pricked, then piped to the pit top where it burned for many years. The agent, Mr Spedding, offered to supply the gas to the town of Whitehaven but the trustees did not take up his offer.
Throughout their history the coal mines of West Cumberland, and in particular those in the Whitehaven area, were plagued with firedamp CH4and as greated depths were reached the problem of ventilation became critical. Accumulations of gas precipitated explosions which killed or maimed the colliers and seriously damaged the underground workings.
To the employer the damage done to the mines was more important than the loss of life. New methods of lighting and ventilation were tried. One of the most important early inventions was the Spedding steel mill, the first attempt to produce a safe means of lighting in an atmosphere containing firedamp.
This new device was merely a steel disc fixed to a small cogwheel and geared to a larger wheel. When the handle was turned a piece of flint was held against the disc, creating a stream of sparks which enabled the miners to see to work. The use of the Spedding steel mill spread throughout the north of England, and they were used till the introduction of the Davy lamp in Wooden props were the main means of supporting coal workings, but at the pit bottoms and main haulage roads and junctions brick walls were built and roofed in timber, second-hand steel and old tramlines.
Some of them are still supporting the old workings. East Cumberland According to the Victoria County History the first record of an early attempt to prove coal in East Cumberland is in the books of the Newcastle Corporation, wherein it is stated that in coal was bored for in Greenside Rigg in the parish of Farlam.
The major area of mining activity appears to have been Tindale Fell where there were many pits. In Tarnhouse and Talkin Collieries producedloads of coal, rising toloads in From early times coal had been worked at other places from the carboniferous limestone series along the Pennine range, but apparently it was mainly used for lime burning.
The most importantarea of such mining was said to have been at Croglin. When the manor of Croglin was purchased by Charles, Duke of Somerset, init included a colliery which was in continuous operation till There were also early coal workings at Hartside and Renwick in the Crossfell range, the earliest reference being in the account book of Lady Anne Clifford for Coal deposits are scattered around the globe, but the coal from a square mile region of northeastern Pennsylvania is special.
During the Paleozoic era, million years ago, what is now rugged and mountainous terrain was a steamy plain filled with swamps.
Nov 25, · An article about coal mining in Wales in the nineteenth century, on the BBC Wales History website. The development of the New Zealand mining industry since INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION. SEE ALSO, Europe Transformed Author: Lewis Hackett Date: Industrialization: The First Phase. Most products people in the industrialized nations use today are turned out swiftly by the process of mass production, by people (and sometimes, robots) working on assembly lines using power-driven machines.
History of coal mining in southern Appalachia, and how it radically transformed the region. The Illinois Labor History Society Seeks to encourage the preservation and study of labor history materials of the Illinois Region, and to arouse public interest in .