An Overview The prospect of human cloning i burst into the public consciousness infollowing the announcement of the successful cloning of Dolly the sheep. It has since captured much attention and generated great debate, both in the United States and around the world. Many are repelled by the idea of producing children who would be genetically virtually identical to pre-existing individuals, and believe such a practice unethical. But some see in such cloning the possibility to do good for infertile couples and the broader society.
An Overview The prospect of human cloning i burst into the public consciousness infollowing the announcement of the successful cloning of Dolly the sheep. It has since captured much attention and generated great debate, both in the United States and around the world.
Many are repelled by the idea of producing children who would be genetically virtually identical to pre-existing individuals, and believe such a practice unethical.
But some see in such cloning the possibility to do good for infertile couples and the broader society. Some want to outlaw it, and many nations have done so.
Others believe the benefits outweigh the risks and the moral concerns, or they oppose legislative interference with science and technology in the name of freedom and progress.
Complicating the national dialogue about human cloning is the isolation in of human embryonic stem cells, which many scientists believe to hold great promise for understanding and treating many chronic diseases and conditions.
Some scientists also believe that stem cells derived from cloned human embryos, produced explicitly for such research, might prove to be uniquely useful for studying many genetic diseases and devising novel therapies.
Public reaction to this prospect has been mixed, with some Americans supporting it in the hope of advancing biomedical research and helping the sick and the suffering, while others are concerned about the instrumentalization or abuse of nascent human life and the resulting danger of moral insensitivity and degradation.
In the United States, several attempts have been made to initiate a comprehensive public review of the significance of human cloning and to formulate appropriate policies. In this report, the President's Council on Bioethics takes up this important charge, and considers the ethical and social implications of human cloning both for producing children and for biomedical research in their full scope, with the aim of informing public policy on the matter.
Our work toward this end is guided by a number of explicit methodological choices about modes of approach, points of departure, and spirit of inquiry. We locate human cloning within its larger human and technological context, rather than consider it in isolation.
We focus first on the broad human goods that it may serve or threaten, rather than on the immediate impact of the technique itself. And we present the strongest arguments for the relevant moral and policy positions, rather than frame the arguments in order to seek consensus.
By our broad approach, our starting on the plane of human goods, and our open spirit of inquiry, we hope to contribute to a richer and deeper understanding of what human cloning entails, how we should think about it, and what we should do about it.
Two points of clarification before we proceed.
First, all of our considerations and arguments assume that cloning techniques, both for producing children and for providing embryos useful in biomedical research, could succeed in human beings as they have with other mammals.
Cloning-to-produce-children has never been successfully carried out in humans, and cloning embryos for biomedical research has not progressed beyond the earliest experiments. We consider it part of our task to judge whether even attempts at human cloning would be ethical or should be lawful.
Practically all public discussion of the ethics of human cloning has, whether expressly or not, proceeded on this same premise, and rightly so. Second, on some of the matters discussed in this report, Members of the Council are not of one mind.
Given that competing goods are at stake, and different people regard them differently, this is not at all surprising. Rather than bury these differences in search of a spurious consensus, we have sought to present all views fairly and fully. Yet transcending these differences is a more fundamental agreement about the worthiness of the approach we have adopted and the arguments we have made.
Accordingly, the Council is unanimous in owning the entire report and in recommending, to all, the report's discussions and arguments for serious consideration.
In the remainder of this overview, we describe the context of human cloning and the discussions it has generated. In the course of doing so, we identify the kinds of questions and concerns that would permit a full assessment of the meaning of human cloning.Thomas Okarma, CEO of Geron Corp., launched this panel with an overview of regenerative medicine and distinguished between reproductive cloning and human embryonic stem cell research.
The camel cloning programme in Saudi Arabia enjoys special care of the government. Clone – in biology, a clone is defined as an organism having identical or nearly identical genetic material.
Human cloning, organ cloning and tissue cloning are various types of cloning that occur at three different levels (Table 1). They are based on three distinctive concepts according to different aims, methodologies, developing courses, and results, thus they should remain differentiated.
Therapeutic cloning, while offering the potential for treating humans suffering from disease or injury, would require the destruction of human embryos in the test tube.
Consequently, opponents argue that using this technique to collect embryonic stem cells is wrong, regardless of whether such cells are used to benefit sick or injured people.
Three concepts of cloning in human beings. Human cloning, organ cloning and tissue cloning are various types of cloning that occur at different levels with different methodologies.
According to three standards of terminology for an embryo (fertilization through germ cells, development in the uterus and having the potential to produce a.
Most importantly, this experiment showed that nuclear transfer was a viable cloning technique. It also reinforced two earlier observations. First, the nucleus directs cell growth and, ultimately, an organism’s development. Second, embryonic cells early in development are better for cloning than cells at .