Maximization psychology Herbert A.
Readings in Educational Psychology Educational Psychology Interactive Abstract Improving individuals' and groups' abilities to solve problems and make decisions is recognized as an important issue in education, industry, and government.
Recent research has identified a prescriptive model of problem solving, although there is less agreement as to appropriate techniques. Separate research on personality and cognitive styles has identified important individual differences in how people approach and solve problems and make decisions.
This paper relates a model of the problem-solving process to Jung's theory of personality types as measured by the MBTI and identifies specific techniques to support individual differences.
The recent transition to the information age has focused attention on the processes of problem solving and decision making and their improvement e.
In fact, Gagneconsiders the strategies used in these processes to be a primary outcome of modern education. There is concurrent and parallel research on personality and cognitive styles that describes individuals' preferred patterns for approaching problems and decisions and their utilization of specific skills required by these processes e.
Researchers have studied the relationship between personality characteristics and problem-solving strategies e. One conclusion that may be drawn from these investigations is that individual differences in problem solving and decision making must be considered to adequately understand the dynamics of these processes Stice, Attention must be paid to both the problem-solving process and the specific techniques associated with important personal characteristics.
That is, individuals and organizations must have a problem-solving process as well as specific techniques congruent with individual styles if they are to capitalize on these areas of current research.
McCaulley attempted to do this by first focusing on individual differences in personality and then by presenting four steps for problem solving based on Jung's four mental processes sensing, intuition, thinking, and feeling.
Another strategy would be to consider first the problem-solving process and then to integrate individual preferences or patterns within this process. This second strategy is the perspective of this paper.
The purpose of this paper is to relate a model of the problem-solving process to a theory of personality type and temperaments in order to facilitate problem solving by focusing on important individual differences.
The integrated process is applicable to a variety of individual and group situations. Problem-Solving and Decision-Making Process Problem solving is a process in which we perceive and resolve a gap between a present situation and a desired goal, with the path to the goal blocked by known or unknown obstacles.
In general, the situation is one not previously encountered, or where at least a specific solution from past experiences is not known.
In contrast, decision making is a selection process where one of two or more possible solutions is chosen to reach a desired goal. The steps in both problem solving and decision making are quite similar. In fact, the terms are sometimes used interchangeably.
Most models of problem solving and decision making include at least four phases e. Each phase of the process includes specific steps to be completed before moving to the next phase.
These steps will be discussed in greater detail later in this paper. Consideration of Individual Differences Although there are a variety of ways to consider individual differences relative to problem solving and decision making, this paper will focus on personality type and temperament as measured by the MBTI.
Personality Type and Problem Solving Researchers have investigated the relationship of Jung's theory of individuals' preferences and their approach to problem solving and decision making e. The following is a summary of their findings.
When solving problems, individuals preferring introversion will want to take time to think and clarify their ideas before they begin talking, while those preferring extraversion will want to talk through their ideas in order to clarify them.
In addition, Is will more likely be concerned with their own understanding of important concepts and ideas, while Es will continually seek feedback from the environment about the viability of their ideas. Sensing individuals will be more likely to pay attention to facts, details, and reality.
They will also tend to select standard solutions that have worked in the past.Making decisions is the most important job of any executive. It’s also the toughest and the riskiest.
Bad decisions can damage a business and a career, sometimes irreparably. Kirstin O’Donovan is a “multinational” productivity coach, author and founder of TopResultsCoaching an international company providing coaching services in nearly a dozen countries. With over 10 years working in the field of coaching and personal development, she provides her expertise to help individuals create the life and results they desire.
Decision-making is a field of interest for philosophers, economists, psychologists, and neuroscientists, among others. A fundamental question that drives research in this area is why do people who are presented with the same options make different choices?
Decision making under risk is presented in the context of decision analysis using different decision criteria for public and private decisions based on decision criteria, type, and quality of available information together with risk assessment. Audio version of "Group decision making" tip sheet (MP3) Because the performance of a group involves taking into account the needs and opinions of every group member, being able to come to an equitable decision as efficiently as possible is important for the functioning of the group.
An example of using a decision making framework designed for non-medical prescribers as a method for enhancing prescribing safety for inhaled corticosteroids (ICS).