Little legal recourse was available to those injured by the unrest, because strikes were not typically considered illegal. Hunt By the beginning of the 19th century, after the revolution, little had changed. The career path for most artisans still involved apprenticeship under a master, followed by moving into independent production. For instance, in Boston inthe vast majority of the 1, artisans in the city described themselves as "master workman".
Western Culture Morality and values are the constructs most often included in definitions Espoused values and the enacted values ethics see Table 1and reasonably so.
In America, morality and values derive largely from the religious and philosophical traditions of Western culture.
Members of societies that are built on these traditions tend to agree on many fundamental principles, whether or not those members are themselves affiliated with a formal religion or even aware of their philosophical inheritance.
For example, principles of fairness, charity, and kindness toward others are widely shared, as are prohibitions against theft, murder, lying, or reckless endangerment Hosmer, Not all societies prohibit adultery or incest, although Western cultures do based on Judeo-Christian beliefs.
When one looks at the specifics of applying moral beliefs, however, even the seemingly more universal principles require qualification. For example, most individuals in the Western world would say that murder is wrong. But profound disagreement lurks just below the surface.
Thus even the most uncontroversial of moral standards -- that murder is wrong -- yields to diverse opinion on practical issues and to a dynamic interplay in society of majority-minority views.
In antiquity, determinism vs. Utilitarian philosophy -- the greatest happiness and the least pain for the greatest number -- developed with Bentham and Mill Smart, Karl Marx identified and condemned the engines of oppression in a class-based society Tucker, More recently, Rawlsian theory examined justice related to the needs, duties, and resources of members of society Rawls, The Codification of Morality Laws and government regulations, relatively recent developments of the industrialized world, are in essence the codification of morality Table 3.
A society holds certain values and beliefs and from these creates the laws that more formally govern human affairs. One finds echoes of the Ten Commandments, the Golden Rule 2and lessons from the Old and New Testament throughout the legal systems of Western civilization Hosmer, In the industrialized world, law and morality interlink extensively.
Often law establishes the minimum conduct expected from members of society and few, if any, positive duties Darr, 3.
The First Amendment to the Constitution demands that church and state religion and law are kept separate. We believe in the ideals of democracy which accord voice, vote, and basic human rights to every individual.
The rights of an individual crime suspect, rather than those of the victim, are a priority in legal processes, sometimes to the perceived detriment of the larger society. One could argue that the utilitarian principle -- the greatest good for the greatest number -- is occasionally subverted by judgments in favor of the individual by the American legal system.
The Societal Codification of Morality U. The concept of due process, which is central to principles of objectivity, administrative fairness, and human resource management, comes to us from law.
Government regulations of health care originate in legislation and are further developed and enforced by designated agents of the government. Legal protection for whistleblowers exists, but is limited to government-related employment e.
Ethical conduct in the U. And as we shall see, there are additional social factors that influence ethical choicemaking. In relation to ethics, laws are a commanding player because they derive from societal consensus about collective morality; hence one cannot separate ethical choice from legal principles.
At this point in our discussion, however, it should also be clear that ethics cannot be distinctly separated from the related domains of culture, religion, philosophy, morality, values, government regulation, or commerce.
Throughout evolution, ethics has flowed from yet additional norms governing human behavior. The Capitalist Ethic The capitalist ethic is a powerful template laid on all human affairs in the U.
To bemoan the profit motive in health care, which nurses frequently do, is to portray oneself as idealistic and naive. Profit-generating activities have always been central to the provision of health care services in this country.
Fortunes have been made in health care long before the emergence of private for-profit entities. What happens over time is simply that the key players who exert more control, and receive greater benefit, change -- not whether or not profits will be generated from health care services.
Moneyed interests drive organizations, and are fundamental and ubiquitous to the U.
They must be knowingly factored into any analysis. Generating profit, by itself, is inherently ethically neutral.The ideals of liberty, equality and independence espoused by the Founding Fathers did little to better women’s lives. They continued to be relegated to the home and domestic spheres.
Values that organizations hold can be either enacted or espoused. Espoused values may not be confirmed by actions, and consequently, the organizational culture is weakened. Leaders have a responsibility to monitor and alter the organizational culture when necessary.
This package provides an essential guide to determining your organization’s current culture and shaping it to fit your strategy.
Enacted Values The values that organization members perceive to be valued by the organization—the “reality”. The greater the difference between espoused values and enacted values, the greater the likelihood for dissatisfaction, cultural problems, etc.
Need to “walk the walk”, not just “talk the talk”%(10). Organizational values set acceptable or expected norms or bounds of behavior for the individual members of the organization. Without organizational values, organization members will, by default, follow their individual value systems.
These may or may not promote behavior that the organization finds. Nov 19, · espoused values stated values and norms preferred by organization meanwhile enacted values are norms that are exhibited by employees.