Impact of ICTs on learning and achievement Research topics and areas of activity meriting further investigation Research question 1: How do exposure to and use of ICTs in school affect future employment? The impact of ICT use in school and student exposure to ICTs, and the nature of use and exposure, on student employability in developing has not been well documented.
This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Developing a researchable question is one of the challenging tasks a researcher encounters when initiating a project.
Both, unanswered issues in current clinical practice or when experiences dictate alternative therapies may provoke an investigator to formulate a clinical research question. This article will assist researchers by providing step-by-step guidance on the formulation of a research question.
This paper also describes PICO population, intervention, control, and outcomes criteria in framing a research question. Finally, we also assess the characteristics of a research question in the context of initiating a research project.
The underlying questions of a research project provide important information to decide whether the topic is relevant, researchable, and significant.
A well-formulated research question needs extreme specificity and preciseness which guides the implementation of the project keeping in mind the identification of variables and population of interest.
Here we will present a clinical scenario and see how clinical questions arise and help us in finding the evidence to answer our question. He has a history of recurrent ear infections, and his mother expresses a concern that he has been on the antibiotic amoxicillin for the past few weeks.
She is worried about the consequences of the long-term antibiotic use. She is also concerned about the outcome associated with recurrent ear infections.
She wants to know if the prescribed amoxicillin is effective, or it can be substituted with another antibiotic because of its side effects such as frequent diarrhea. Several questions arise from this case which can be broadly classified into background and foreground questions.
These types of questions can be answered by going through review articles or text books. The patient-oriented questions involving interpretation of a therapy or disease and consideration of risk vs.
These questions mostly compare the two, either two drugs or treatments or two diagnostic methods, etc. Feasibility Suffi cient resources in terms of time, staff, and funding Use of appropriate study design Manageable in scope Adequate sample size Trained research staff I: Novel Thorough literature search New fi ndings or extension of previous findings Guidance from mentors and experts E: Relevant Open in a separate window Population or problem- addressing a specific population, its important characteristics and demographic information.
From the above case, you can identify pediatric population with otitis media, the age range, sex, presenting complaint, and history.
Intervention or treatment of interest- the intervention can be a treatment, procedure, diagnostic test, and risk or prognostic factors.
In this case, the intervention will be your plan to treat the patient which can be a new therapy, a diagnostic test, prognostic factor, or a procedure. For example, based on your observation in clinic, cefuroxime is another better treatment option as compared to amoxicillin in treating otitis media but you are not sure about its efficacy in pediatric population with otitis media.
Comparator or control-when a new therapy is compared with the existing one.
Outcome- is the effect of the intervention. For example, its effectiveness in controlling pain. Therefore, the outcome in the above case can be the relief of pain, the resolution of infection, or decreasing the risk of developing resistance. A good primary outcome should be easily quantifiable, specific, valid, reproducible, and appropriate to your research question.
Once background questions are answered, more complex questions are addressed. The clinical questions arise from the central issues in a clinical work. After determining a foreground question, the PICO approach is followed.
Dissecting the question into parts makes it easy and searchable. As evident in this case, there are several relevant questions, for example: Now if you gather all the information from PICO approach, the following researchable questions can be formulated. In children with acute otitis media Pis cefuroxime I effective in reducing the duration of symptoms O as compared to amoxicillin C?
In children suffering from otitis media, will cefuroxime result in the improvement of symptoms and reduction in developing resistance?The Power of Together. Welcome to Nutricia Learning Center (NLC), a community hub and trusted, collective resource for health care providers managing patients with special nutritional needs.
Thanks for this Mike. Probably the most important research question is how do we get the funding to answer all the other research questions. It's a fascinating and valuable list. Quantitative Research Article Critique. Corey J. Ivany (MUN ID#: ) The authors draw on pre-existing research to formulate the purpose of their own study.
Additionally, they seem to have drawn on a comprehensive list of sources throughout the study. In terms of success, it is perhaps useful to reiterate the research question for.
1. Introduction Background. A fundamental question that can be posed within any field of research is ‘What constitutes good or high quality research (or scientific) practice?’.This question is relevant for research both in a university context and in an organizational or innovation context for research and development activities.
TDR Implementation research toolkit. This toolkit is designed to help you conduct an implementation research (IR) project through a standard process so that you have high quality results that are reliable.
Theory of Development. by Garry Jacobs, Robert Macfarlane, and N. Asokan [presented to Pacific Rim Economic Conference, Bangkok, Jan , ].