David Crane explained in a Dec article titled "Don't discount the positive side of globalization" "Canada's clothing industry provides a good example of the trade-off that comes when a country lowers its trade barriers as Canada has done with clothing. Employment fell by 34, to 60, a 36 per cent fall in the number of clothing industry jobs.
Archaic globalization Perhaps the extreme proponent of a deep historical origin for globalization was Andre Gunder Frankan economist associated with dependency theory. Frank argued that a form of globalization has been in existence since the rise of trade links between Sumer and the Indus Valley Civilization in the third millennium BC .
Critics of this idea contend that it rests upon an over-broad definition of globalization. Friedman divides the history of globalization into three periods: He states that Globalization 1. Territorial expansion by our ancestors to all five continents was a critical component in establishing globalization.
However, globalization failed to accelerate due to lack of long distance interaction and technology. Trade was widespread during that period, and it is the first time the idea of a cosmopolitan culture from Greek "Cosmopolis", meaning "world city" emerged. Others have perceived an early form of globalization in the trade links between the Roman Empirethe Parthian Empireand the Han Dynasty.
The increasing articulation of commercial links between these powers inspired the development of the Silk Roadwhich started in western China, reached the boundaries of the Parthian empire, and continued onwards towards Rome.
Globally significant crops such as sugar and cotton became widely cultivated across the Muslim world in this period, while the necessity of learning Arabic and completing the Hajj created a cosmopolitan culture. This permitted travelers and missionaries such as Marco Polo to journey successfully and profitably from one end of Eurasia to the other.
The Pax Mongolica of the thirteenth century had several other notable globalizing effects. It witnessed the creation of the first international postal serviceas well as the rapid transmission of epidemic diseases such as bubonic plague across the newly unified regions of Central Asia.
Up to the sixteenth century, however, even the largest systems of international exchange were limited to the Old World. Proto-globalization The next phase is known as proto-globalization.
It was characterized by the rise of maritime European empires, in the 16th and 17th centuries, first the Portuguese and Spanish Empiresand later the Dutch and British Empires.
In the 17th century, globalization became also a private business phenomenon when chartered companies like British East India Company founded inoften described as the first multinational corporationas well as the Dutch East India Company founded in were established.
The Age of Discovery brought a broad change in globalization, being the first period in which Eurasia and Africa engaged in substantial cultural, material and biologic exchange with the New World.
It began in the late 15th century, when the two Kingdoms of the Iberian Peninsula — Portugal and Castile — sent the first exploratory voyages around the Cape of Good Hope and to the Americas"discovered" in by Christopher Columbus.
Shortly before the turn of the 16th century, Portuguese started establishing trading posts factories from Africa to Asia and Brazil, to deal with the trade of local products like slavesgoldspices and timberintroducing an international business center under a royal monopoly, the House of India.
It was one of the most significant global events concerning ecologyagricultureand culture in history.
The 19th century witnessed the advent of globalization approaching its modern form. Industrialization allowed cheap production of household items using economies of scale ,[ citation needed ] while rapid population growth created sustained demand for commodities. Globalization in this period was decisively shaped by nineteenth-century imperialism.
After the First and Second Opium Warswhich opened up China to foreign trade, and the completion of the British conquest of India, the vast populations of these regions became ready consumers of European exports. It was in this period that areas of sub-Saharan Africa and the Pacific islands were incorporated into the world system.Asia Pacific Program.
The Asia-Pacific region encompasses an entire hemisphere: 8, miles across the Pacific, 55 countries, 60% of global population, and a majority of the planet’s remaining resources.
Joseph E. Stiglitz is a Nobel Prize–winning economist and the best-selling author of The Great Divide, Rewriting the Rules of the American Economy, The Price of Inequality, Freefall: America, Free Markets, and the Sinking of the World Economy, and Globalization and Its Discontents.
The debate over the positive and negative effects of globalization is a hot topic for many individuals, agencies, organizations and government departments who find themselves in a position to defend or attack the current globalization trends.
immediate famil dislocated work business globalization marginal benefi revenue product. Aug 27, · Globalization and infectious diseases: A review of the linkages Lance Saker,1 MSc MRCP Kelley Lee,1 MPA, MA, initiativeblog.com Barbara Cannito,1 MSc Anna Gilmore,2 MBBS, DTM&H, MSc, MFPHM Diarmid Campbell-Lendrum,1 initiativeblog.com 1 Centre on Global Change and Health.
An early form of globalized economics and culture, known as archaic globalization, existed during the Hellenistic Age, when commercialized urban centers were focused around the axis of Greek culture over a wide range that stretched from India to Spain, with such cities as Alexandria, Athens, and Antioch at its center.
Trade was widespread .