It has seemed to me worth while to show from the history of civilization just what war has done and has not done for the welfare of mankind. In the eighteenth century it was assumed that the primitive state of mankind was one of Arcadian peace, joy, and contentment.
History[ edit ] While the concept of an intelligence behind the natural order is ancient, a rational argument that concludes that we can know that the natural world has a designer, or a creating intelligence which has human-like purposes, appears to have begun with classical philosophy.
Later, variants on the argument from design were produced in Western philosophy and by Christian fundamentalism. Classical philosophy[ edit ] Socrates and the pre-Socratics[ edit ] Plato and Aristotledepicted here in The School of Athensboth developed philosophical arguments addressing the universe's apparent order logos The argument from intelligent design appears to have begun with Socratesalthough the concept of a cosmic intelligence is older and David Sedley has argued that Socrates was developing an older idea, citing Anaxagoras of Clazomenaeborn about BC, as a possible earlier proponent.
Anaxagoras is the first person who is definitely known to have explained such a concept using the word " nous " which is the original Greek term that leads to modern English "intelligence" via its Latin and French translations. Aristotle reports an earlier philosopher from Clazomenae named Hermotimus who had taken a similar position.
For example Empedocleslike Hesiod much earlier, described cosmic order and living things as caused by a cosmic version of love and Pythagoras and Heraclitus attributed the cosmos with " reason " logos.
Perhaps they are right. But he also expressed disagreement with Anaxagoras' understanding of the implications of his own doctrine, because of Anaxagoras' materialist understanding of causation.
Socrates complained that Anaxagoras restricted the work of the cosmic nous to the beginning, as if it were uninterested and all events since then just happened because of causes like air and water. In this desire to go beyond Anaxagoras and make the cosmic nous a more active manager, Socrates was apparently preceded by Diogenes of Apollonia.
Plato's teleological perspective is also built upon the analysis of a priori order and structure in the world that he had already presented in The Republic.
The story does not propose creation ex nihilo ; rather, the demiurge made order from the chaos of the cosmos, imitating the eternal Forms. This debate was to persist throughout the ancient world.
Atomistic mechanism got a shot in the arm from Epicurus The choice seems simple: He was very influential in the future development of classical creationism, but was not a straightforward "creationist" because he required no creation interventions in nature, meaning he "insulated god from any requirement to intervene in nature, either as creator or as administrator".
For example birds use wings for the purpose of flight. As pointed out by Sedley, "Aristotle is happy to say Physics II 8, ab4 without the slightest fear of blasphemy, crafts make occasional mistakes; therefore, by analogy, so can nature".
He explicitly compared this to human technology: If then what comes from art is for the sake of something, it is clear that what come from nature is too [ Martha Nussbaum for example has argued that in his biology this approach was practical and meant to show nature only being analogous to human art, explanations of an organ being greatly informed by knowledge of its essential function.
In any case, Aristotle was not understood this way by his followers in the Middle Ages, who saw him as consistent with monotheistic religion and a teleological understanding of all nature.
Consistent with the medieval interpretation, in his Metaphysics and other works Aristotle clearly argued a case for their being one highest god or " prime mover " which was the ultimate cause, though specifically not the material cause, of the eternal forms or natures which cause the natural order, including all living things.
And he clearly refers to this entity having an intellect that humans somehow share in, which helps humans see the true natures or forms of things without relying purely on sense perception of physical things, including living species. This understanding of nature, and Aristotle's arguments against materialist understandings of nature, were very influential in the Middle Ages in Europe.
The idea of fixed species remained dominant in biology until Darwin, and a focus upon biology is still common today in teleological criticisms of modern science.
Roman era[ edit ] It was the Stoics who "developed the battery of creationist arguments broadly known under the label 'The Argument from Design'". He has one of the characters in the dialogue say: When you see a sundial or a water-clock, you see that it tells the time by design and not by chance.
How then can you imagine that the universe as a whole is devoid of purpose and intelligence, when it embraces everything, including these artifacts themselves and their artificers?
He was not a Stoic, but like them he looked back to the Socratics and was constantly engaged in arguing against atomists such as the Epicureans. Unlike Aristotle who was however a major influence upon himand unlike the Neoplatonists, he believed there was really evidence for something literally like the "demiurge" found in Plato's Timaeus, which worked physical upon nature.
In works such as his On the Usefulness of Parts he explained evidence for it in the complexity of animal construction. His work shows "early signs of contact and contrast between the pagan and the Judaeo-Christian tradition of creation", criticizing the account found in the Bible.
In contrast to this, the Platonic tradition's Demiurge is above all else a technician. Galen shared with Xenophon a scepticism of the value of books about most speculative philosophy, except for inquiries such as whether there is "something in the world superior in power and wisdom to man".
This he saw as having an everyday importance, a usefulness for living well. He also asserted that Xenophon was the author who reported the real position of Socrates, including his aloofness from many types of speculative science and philosophy.
Medieval philosophy and theology[ edit ] Late classical Christian writers[ edit ] As an appeal to general revelationPaul the Apostle AD 5—67argues in Romans 1: Various forms of the argument from design have been used by Islamic theologians and philosophers from the time of the early Mutakallimun theologians in the 9th century, although it is rejected by fundamentalist or literalist schools, for whom the mention of God in the Qu'ran should be sufficient evidence.
The argument from design was also seen as an unconvincing sophism by the early Islamic philosopher Al-Farabiwho instead took the "emanationist" approach of the Neoplatonists such as Plotinus, whereby nature is rationally ordered, but God is not like a craftsman who literally manages the world.Another great essay.
I enjoy your writing so much Mr. Kingsworth– its like having my innermost feelings, thoughts and ideas given voice in . How Is Harmony Is Perceived In Modern day Design School of thought Essay Through generations, harmony is definitely seen has a perception of a global efficiency and beauty.
A link between several parts combined along and a good relationship with each other is what defines a harmonious beauty. This essay seeks to define the notion of harmony and will elaborate its evolution and how it is perceived in spatial design. The notion of harmony is questioned . The teleological or physico-theological argument, also known as the argument from design, or intelligent design argument is an argument for the existence of God or, more generally, for an intelligent creator based on perceived evidence of deliberate design in the natural world.
In the perspective of the history of art, artistic works have existed for almost as long as humankind: from early pre-historic art to contemporary art; however, some theories restrict the concept of "artistic works" to modern Western societies.
One early sense of the definition of art is closely related to the older Latin meaning, which roughly translates . A design argument is based on the perceived evidence of design in the natural and physical world. The banana argument explains Gods existence based on the design of the banana and how its design is beneficial to humans.