Critiquing Quantitative, Qualitative, or Mixed Methods Studies Critiquing Quantitative, Qualitative, or Mixed Methods Studies Critiquing the validity and robustness of research featured in journal articles provides a critical foundation for engaging in evidence-based practice.
Researchers have used the mixed methods approach to examine nuanced topics, such as electronic personal health records, 3 knowledge resources, 4 patient-physician communication, 5 and insight about intervention feasibility and implementation practices. Integration Increasingly, methodologists have emphasized the integration of qualitative and quantitative data as the centerpiece of mixed methods.
Rigorous reviews of published studies have found that often researchers collect quantitative and qualitative data but do not integrate. Mixed Methods Designs Basic mixed methods study designs provide an overall process to guide integration.
There are 3 types of basic designs: The explanatory design begins with a quantitative data collection and analysis phase, which informs the follow-up qualitative phase. The convergent design involves quantitative and qualitative data collection and analysis at similar times, followed by an integrated analysis.
Adding features to Quantitative qualitative and mixed methods basic designs results in advanced designs: Integration of the quantitative and qualitative approaches can then occur through methods in at least 4 ways: Joint displays provide a visual means to both integrate and represent mixed methods results to generate new inferences.
The purposes of this research therefore was to examine the various types of joint displays used according to the mixed methods design in the health sciences, and to identify exemplars and describe how researchers use the joint displays to enhance interpretation of the integrated quantitative and qualitative data.
METHODS Design and Study Selection We included journals that publish high-quality, state-of-the art mixed methods research and focused on health-related topics for the target audience of health sciences researchers.
Although health sciences articles seem more likely to use joint displays, other disciplines also use joint displays that could be insightful.
In the journals, we identified articles with joint displays for analysis. The first step was to search for articles published in the Annals of Family Medicine from January through September We targeted these journals because of their high impact factor and history of publishing empirical and methodologic mixed methods articles.
The process consisted of scanning all 81 identified articles that addressed a health-related topic. Eligibility Criteria The first eligibility criterion required that articles reported an empirical health-related study, as opposed to solely being conceptual articles. The second criterion was that the study used mixed methods, defined as the collection, analysis, and integration of quantitative and qualitative data.
We screened each article by title and abstract. A review of the full text was necessary to assess the third criterion, namely, the presence of a visual joint display to represent the integration of quantitative and qualitative data.
Data Extraction For each article, we extracted the following information: To categorize the type of joint display used, we used a typology of joint displays To identify best practices and exemplars, as a group we analyzed the insights the researchers gained through using the joint display.
From the review, we identified the distribution of joint displays organized by mixed methods design Supplemental Tables are available at http: For explanatory sequential designs, researchers used 3 display types: Displays found in exploratory sequential designs were statistics-by-themes and instrument development displays.
The displays demonstrated the potential to represent mixing by linking the qualitative findings to scale items 25 or to the quantitative analysis. In studies using data transformation, whereby qualitative results were transformed into numeric scores, joint displays presented the statistical analysis of qualitatively derived data eg, coded transcripts of patient visits Next, the intervention design displays included side-by-side displays of results to embed qualitative findings with treatment outcomes illuminating issues, such as implementation practices 28 or patient experiences.
Several joint displays combined types, for example, integrating a theoretical framework into a side-by-side display. Exemplar Joint Displays As a result of this overview of joint displays, we identified 5 exemplar joint displays that researchers conducting mixed methods investigations could use to guide integration during analytic and interpretation processes.
The exemplars illustrate unique characteristics of joint displays and their value for generating inferences, and are described in greater detail below. They examined themes from 33 qualitative studies of patient care experiences and matched codes to existing instruments and added new items.
An instrument development joint display mapped the qualitative dimensions of care continuity to quantitative instrument items Figure 1. Major headings of rows marked each continuity of care dimension.One popular mixed-methods approach is the sequential explanatory strategy.
In this approach, quantitative data are collected and analyzed first and the results used to inform the subsequent qualitative phase. Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches [John W. Creswell, J. David Creswell] on initiativeblog.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers.
This bestselling text pioneered the comparison of qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods research design. For all three approaches. What is Mixed Methods Research?
Mixed methods research (MMR) is “an approach to research in social, behavioral, and health sciences in which the investigator gathers both quantitative (closed-ended) and qualitative (open-ended) data, integrates the two, and then draws interpretations based on the combined strength of both sets of data to .
Education and Research Methods International Journal of Quantitative and Qualitative Research Methods is run by the European Centre for Research, Training and Development, United Kingdom.
About the Author. John W. Creswell, PhD, is a professor of family medicine and co-director of the Michigan Mixed Methods Research and Scholarship Program at the University of Michigan. He has authored numerous articles and 28 books on mixed methods research, qualitative research, and research design.
Researchers utilized the three most common types of research studies to analyze and provide a synthesis of how qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods research studies have been presented within the research literature regarding severe mental illnesses and specific behavioral lifestyle interventions for research subjects within this group.