Thesis[ edit ] Gibbon offers an explanation for the fall of the Roman Empirea task made difficult by a lack of comprehensive written sources, though he was not the only historian to attempt it. The story of its ruin is simple and obvious; and, instead of inquiring why the Roman empire was destroyed, we should rather be surprised that it had subsisted so long.
Often the rise of a new hegemon is a result of the vacuum of power that an old empire leaves behind after entering a period of political and cultural decline. The Turks, or the future Ottomans, had become hegemons in the Middle East and South Eastern Europe not only because of their extraordinary political and military organization, but also because of the exhaustion of the older empires Byzantium and the Abbasids.
In the eleventh century, the Turkish tribes living in Iran and western Anatolia were a constant source of mercenary soldiers for the Abbasid caliphs. Their influence was constantly growing and in the middle of the eleventh century they gradually formed a confederation in the region of modern Iran, called the Seljuk confederation.
This was possible mainly because in the Abbasids invited in Bagdad the Seljuk Turkish leader to assume the administrative and military authority in the empire in exchange of protection of Caliph's vast territories.
The Bagdad caliph proclaimed the Turkish leader as sultan or a temporal ruler. Spanning more than a century of conflict, the book considers challenges the Ottoman government faced from both neighbouring Catholic Habsburg Austria and Orthodox Romanov Russia, as well as - arguably more importantly - from military, intellectual and religious groups within the empire.
Using close analysis of select campaigns, Virginia Aksan first discusses the Ottoman Empire's changing internal military context, before addressing the modernized regimental organisation under Sultan Mahmud II after The Turkish military power and energy were enough strong to dominate from north-western Iran to the Arab lands.
The Seljuk confederation became an open door for migration of more Turkish tribes from east the Turks were nomads originating from the region of Mongolia to Caucasus region and Anatolia. Anatolia traditionally was a land with Greek Christian population. Slowly this territory was covered with enclaves of Turkish communities professing Sunni Islam.
Genghis Khan's hordes did not spare Bagdad. The Mongols sacked the city and killed the Caliph. But their expansion to Africa and Arabia was checked in a battle near Jerusalem by another successful Turkish sultanate formed in Egypt - the Egyptian Mamluks, based in Cairo.
With this victory, the Mamluk Turks had assured power and influence over Syria and Egypt for a long time, well until As it was said earlier, the real Ottoman expansion started from Anatolia, when the Turkish warlike communities in the region became more and more hostile to Byzantium -- their successful raids against the old Christian empire were inspired by religious zeal and passion for enrichment.
Turkish Islamic warriors called ghazior frontier warriors of faith, attacked the Byzantine's lands, and one of them, Osmanin the early achieved a number of military victories against the crumbling empire.
Osman bey is the founder of the Ottoman dynasty and state. His son, Orhancontinued the Turkish expansion deep in the north-western Christian lands and in he captured the town of Bursa, located on the north western slopes of Mount Uludag bordering with the coast of Sea of Marmara.
Orhan made Bursa capital of his new state. Bursa was some 57 miles 92 km from Constantinople and it was only a matter of time for the Ottoman Turks to conquer the capital of Byzantium.
Constantinople had already been experiencing decline when inafter a short siege, Sultan Mehmed II The Conqueror captured the city.
Ottomans built a fleet that was competing with Venice and the Portuguese, they conquered the Mediterranean Sea and the coasts of North Africa. How can the swift rise of the Ottoman power be explained? The most basic reason is perhaps the weakness of the old political formations in the Middle East.
During the initial Ottoman expansion the Middle East and South Eastern Europe were an "old soil" exhausted of civilizational cultivation and barbaric wars.
Greeks, Persians, Romans, and Arabs succeeded each other destroying and building great civilizations there as every new period of great achievements was preceded by intermediate periods of decline. The Ottomans, as many others before them, used the opportunity to expand in the favourable for them moment of hegemonic decline.
The character of the new empire was absolutist, militaristic, bureaucratic, agrarian, universal, and very pragmatic. The Ottoman Empire rested on the following principles: Expansionism - ghaza or holy war against the non-Muslims in the frontiers Absolutism - imperial dynasty and sophisticated court system Muslim law system - shariah all embracing sacred law, based on Quran and sunnah and independence of the ulamas who are the Islamic teachers, scholars, learned men, knowing the Islamic doctrine Efficient system of taxation - very specific system of taxation, pragmatic and flexible, duties were different according the traditions and specifics of each province and community.
Division of the society - ruled raya and rulers askeris The Ottoman sultan had a group of high rank advisers, imperial council or divan. On the top of the bureaucratic hierarchy stayed the vizier. Succession of the Sultans was a bloody process. The young princes were educated and trained in the provinces, but only one of them had the right to rule.
The need for political stability required the brothers of the new sultan to be assassinated. One of the most distinctive features of Ottoman state system was slave collection, or Devshirme.
The sultan harvested young boys from the Christian families living in European provinces, converted them in Islam, educated and trained them, and eventually put them in service of the state.
After the training, the slaves received top military and civilian posts. The Ottoman administration was run by slaves. From mid-fifteen to mid-seventeen century nearly all viziers were converted Christian slaves.Chapter Decline In The Muslim World The second decline of the Muslim world, its Dark Age, dates roughly from the beginning of the twelfth/eighteenth century to the middle of the thirteenth/ nineteenth century.
Sep 24, · The Rise of the Islamic Civilization But perhaps the most enlightened period of Islamic civilization took hold by the ascension of the Abbasid Caliphate and the transfer of the capital from Damascus to Baghdad by the middle of the 8th century, it was then when the Muslim world became an intellectual center for science, philosophy, medicine and education.
Decline of the Muslim Empires: Safavid, Ottoman, and Mughal Since the beginning, all empires have faced change in many ways, declining and rising in status. Many empires have collapsed, only to start again under a different name.
Feb 02, · Melvyn Bragg discusses the Abbasid Caliphs, dynastic rulers of the Islamic world between the middle of the eighth and the tenth centuries, who headed a multi-cultural Muslim empire.
Thee was many rulers who weakened the empire by removing taxes from non Muslims, or doing such things that removed major income for the empire.
The final Islam Empire was the Ottoman Empire which collapsed in from the aftermath of Wold War 1. May 07, · The Islamic Empire existed in many regions of the world, the last and most recent being the Ottoman Empire with its capital at Turkey.
The main reason for the fall of any empire is the failure to change and adapt with circumstances.