Paleolithic EuropeNeolithic Europeand Bronze Age Europe Oak figurine found in Willemstad BCE The prehistory of the area that is now the Netherlands was largely shaped by the sea and the rivers that constantly shifted the low-lying geography. The oldest human Neanderthal traces were found in higher soils, near Maastrichtfrom what is believed to be aboutyears ago. From Mesolithic Maglemosian-like tribes c. Bronze Age cultures in the Netherlands.
This period saw the transition from a relatively rigid system of legal proofs which predetermined when there was sufficient evidence for a condemnation, to a system based on the free evaluation of the evidence by either professional judges or lay jurors.
It is the central contention of this article that the reform of the criminal law of evidence can, to an important extent, be explained by two larger underlying ideological changes.
These new ideas derived from a change in the epistemological and the political-constitutional discourses between the seventeenth and nineteenth centuries. Recht und Macht in Verfahren gegen Hexen — Zugleich eine Untersuchung zur Entstehung des Inquisitionsprozesses This article examines the reasons, which led to the development and the ending of witch trials in the Holy Roman Empire.
First of all, the essay explains the procedural reasons for the introduction of the inquisition procedure and its effects on the prosecution of heretics in the Holy Roman Empire. Subsequently, the development from the ancient offence of damage magic maleficium to the early modern offence of witchcraft is presented.
In particular, the reasons are given for the transformation of the maleficium into an element of witchcraft. However, the Carolina, the pertinent criminal and criminal procedural law of the Holy Roman Empire stuck to the maleficium. Nonetheless, the codification of the offence of witchcraft in the Electoral Saxon Constitutions led to the decisive paradigm shift in favour of the offence of witchcraft.
Accordingly, the procedure of witch trails is outlined, whereby the focus is on the demarcation of the processus ordinarius and the processus extraordinarius. Furthermore, this essay explains under which circumstances witch trails were excessive and unlawful.
In this context the processus extraordinarius is decidedly examined. In the last section of this article, the possibilities to obtain legal protection against illegal procedural acts in witch trails are discussed.
Moreover, this article emphasizes that the High Courts of Holy Roman Empire regularly decided in favour of the accused in witch trails.
At the same time, the essay shows that the High Courts of the Holy Roman Empire respected the Carolina and contributed significantly to the containment of witch trials.
Keywords Hexenprozesse; Hexenlehre; Constitutio Criminalis Carolina; processus ordinarius; processus extraordinarius; crimen exceptum; crimen magiae; maleficium; Reichskammergericht; Reichshofrat Kamila Staudigl-Ciechowicz: From on anti-Semitic tendencies at the universities were getting stronger, in spring Jewish as well as political opponent scholars and students were forced to leave the Austrian universities due to national socialistic ideology.
The paper shows the expulsions from a legal point of view, stressing the significance of the laws that where enacted between — by the austrofacist government. University of Vienna; racially- and politically-motivated expulsions, Anti-Semitism, faculty of law and state. How the judges dispensed justice against several ethnical groups?
In the end you could see an of course nationalistsocialist court, but not a highly political and not always unfair one. Raluca Enescu, Leonie Benker: The Birth of Criminalistics and the Transition from Lay to Expert Witnesses in German Courts The European judicial setting underwent profound changes with the shift from testimonial to material evidence at the end of the 19th century.
Expert witnesses possessing specialist knowledge entered the courtroom, throwing shadow on lay witnesses who suddenly were considered unreliable.
This evidential mutation arose from the emergence of specialist knowledge delivered by expert witnesses.The euro, the new European currency that is now adopted by 12 members of the European Union, has more of a competitive edge against the US dollar.
After the introduction of the Euro to the financial world, changes took place across the 3/5(5).
The publisher of the Journal on European History of Law is the STS Science Centre Ltd. seated in London. The European Society for History of Law closely cooperates with the STS Science Centre Ltd.
and helps with editing the journal.
As a follow-up to Tuesday’s post about the majority-minority public schools in Oslo, the following brief account reports the latest statistics on the cultural enrichment of schools in Austria.
Vienna is the most fully enriched location, and seems to be in roughly the same situation as Oslo. Many thanks to Hermes for the translation from initiativeblog.com The European Parliament which represents the people, the Council of the EU which represents the governments of the member states, and the European Commission which represents the common interests of the people and the governments.
🔥Citing and more! Add citations directly into your paper, Check for unintentional plagiarism and check for writing mistakes. Clockwise from top left: A large EU flag is waved across Maidan on 27 November , opposition activist and popular singer Ruslana addresses the crowds on Maidan on 29 November , Pro EU rally on Maidan, Euromaidan on European Square on 1 December, tree decorated with flags and posters, crowds direct hose at militsiya, plinth of the toppled Lenin statue.